Ugrás a tartalomhoz Lépj a menübe
 


2021.02.08

11. A feudális hierarchia

A feudális társadalmi rend 1000 körül alakult ki. A Karoling Birodalom felbomlása után és a vándornépek támadásai nyomán Nyugat-Európa lakossága nem érezte biztonságban magát, ezért a nagybirtokosokhoz fordult oltalomért.

A vazallus (szolga, alárendelt személy) hűséget esküdött a seniornak (hűbérúr), amiért cserébe védelmet és feudumnak nevezett földbirtokot kapott:

- ez a homágium (hűségeskü) és beiktatás keretén belül valósult meg

- a feudum egy vagy több faluból, de akár egy egész fejedelemségből is állhatott

- mindenki vazallusa volt valakinek

- a király Isten vazallusa volt (pld. Én, Mátyás Isten kegyelméből Magyarország, Horvátország stb. királya)

- főeskü – ha egy vazallus több seniornak is hűséget esküdött, azt kellett elsősorban segítse, akinek a főesküt letette

- immunitás – egyes földbirtokok teljes védelmet kaptak mindenfajta beavatkozás alól

- a seniorok saját birtokukon monopóliumokat (kizárólagos jogokat) élveztek, pld. halászat, vadászat

- az uradalom központhában a vár állt – a földesúr lakhelye, hatalmának jelképe, amely veszély esetén menedéket nyújtott az uradalom parasztjainak is

          - magaslatokra, szigetekre, elárasztható területekre építették

- a főépület az öregtorony (donjon) volt, a vártulajdonos családjának lakhelye

- a donjont védőtornyokkal ellátott magas és vastag falak övezték

- ezeket a falakat vizesárok vette körbe, amelyen a felvonóhídon keresztül lehetett átkelni.

 

Hozzászólások

Hozzászólás megtekintése

Hozzászólások megtekintése

vegas11

Howardreola, 2022.04.05 01:28

<a href=https://www.vegas11register.com/>vegas11</a>

порно большие одежды

WilliamUtini, 2022.04.05 00:54

смотреть порно видео насилуют <a href=https://pornolomka.vip/>ПОРНОЛОМКА</a>

порно широкие красивые <a href=https://pornolomka.vip/search/%D0%94%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B9%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B5%20%D0%9F%D1%80%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5/>двойное проникновение в вагину русское порно </a>

<a href=http://www.orbisavia.cz/en/sm-92te-praga?form_uid=597ae15206029aee01881f9a0f836a60#form-77>красивое порно видео онлайн бесплатно</a>
<a href=http://azumihome.com/publics/index/3/b_id=7/r_id=1/fid=ab4a7d5946eea1bf7e755c194a2164e1>молодая пробует порно</a>
<a href=https://bt24.kz/gefest-dge-621-01-k48/?selected_section=discussion#discussion>порно онлайн дилдо</a>
<a href=https://tda-consulting.com/2020/05/bingo-nodejs/#comment-707>смотреть порно 1080</a>
<a href=https://kwwtx.com/2021/03/hello-world/#comment-1294>порно невеста анал</a>
<a href=http://eresource.infored.mx/?gb=1#top>порно малышки анал</a>
<a href=https://nagai-yoriito.com/eng/pages/3/b_id=7/r_id=1/fid=9cac9c911325382d34981f14dcf1a4f8>порно молодые раздеваются</a>
<a href=http://g-creative.com/hello-world#comment-9283>порно онлайн 24</a>
<a href=https://bleedinginthedark.org/peace-in-the-midst-of-a-crisis/#comment-4096>порно фото больший попки</a>
<a href=http://nishimura.gs/cgi-bin/yybbs/yybbs.cgi>порно большие сиськи в ванне</a>
a6fb9f1

registration bonus online casino

casino-online-mk, 2022.04.05 00:50

<a href=https://casino-online-mk.site>casino online</a>

Sports betting in Macedonia is considered to be quite bounteous, as is the chest for gambling in general. Gambling and online betting are sound in Macedonia. These classify online casinos, groove machines, online sports betting, online poker, and more. The activities of these sites are not doubtlessly controlled alongside regional authorities. But North Macedonia is said to be working on that part.
<a href=https://casino-online-mk.site>jackpot casino online</a>

canadian drugstore

BobbyFup, 2022.04.04 22:47

online pharmacies uk <a href=https://weruybsd.fireblogz.com/39575666/four-issues-to-do-immediately-about-online-pharmacies#>canadian pharmaceuticals </a>
canadian pharmacy viagra generic <a href="https://keuybc.estranky.sk/clanky/30-facts-you-must-know--a-covid-cribsheet.html#">canadian online pharmacies </a>
walmart pharmacy online https://derkuy.timeblog.net/45076032/key-pieces-of-online-pharmacies

How To Cuff Down A 1WIN Movable

onewinArots, 2022.04.04 22:05

Football, Australian Rules, Baseball, Basketball, Cricket, eSports, Football, Ice Hockey, MMA/UFC, Motorsports, Rugby League, Rugby Union, Table Tennis, Tennis, Volleyball. In the V-sport tab, you can find simulators of tennis, football, steed auto racing, speedway, car racing as well <a href=https://casino-en-1win.site>1 win </a> as also trotting. The sportsbook offers in-play on a substantial number of its well recognized games like football, tennis, and also b-ball. This sportsbook also compensates brand-new clients with a very rewarding welcome benefit. 1WIN online casino is drawing in new players due to the outstanding 500% welcome perk offered in addition to it. As supplying numerous video games to wager on - as well as that <a href=https://casino-en-1win.site>one win casino </a> remarkable welcome reward worth up to EUR1000 - you'll also track down numerous proposals for existing clients, with typical video games and also developments running every week. You can bet on numerous games at this betting site, and our choose 1WIN promo code NEWBONUS permits you to ensure an incredible 200% store incentive well worth approximately a substantial 1,000 EUR. All of these benefits you can discover in 1WIN app. The mobile app also offers you the capacity to make deposits or withdrawals from your device to obtain one of the most out of your video game. And the finest means to do this remains in our mobile application.

backlinks for google

BrentBut, 2022.04.04 21:08

<a href=https://kwork.ru/links/14065027/obratnie-ssylki-s-pomoshchyu-analizatorov-cherez-redirekt-500-ssylok?ref=4687903>линкбилдинг</a> |
<a href="http://metinmiedo.mex.tl/?gb=1#top">backlinks for google</a> 6fb9f0_

Проволока 1.3936

Kathrynjah, 2022.04.04 20:55

Приглашаем Ваше предприятие к взаимовыгодному сотрудничеству в сфере производства и поставки <a href=https://redmetsplav.ru/store/nikel1/zarubezhnye_materialy/germaniya/cat1.4869/provoloka_1.4869/>Проволока 1.3936</a>.
- Поставка тугоплавких и жаропрочных сплавов на основе (молибдена, вольфрама, тантала, ниобия, титана, циркония, висмута, ванадия, никеля, кобальта);
- Поставка катализаторов, и оксидов
- Поставка изделий производственно-технического назначения пруток, лист, проволока, сетка, тигли, квадрат, экран, нагреватель) штабик, фольга, контакты, втулка, опора, поддоны, затравкодержатели, формообразователи, диски, провод, обруч, электрод, детали,пластина, полоса, рифлёная пластина, лодочка, блины, бруски, чаши, диски, труба.
- Любые типоразмеры, изготовление по чертежам и спецификациям заказчика.
- Поставка изделий из сплавов:

<a href=https://www.armenisevehiclecare.com/sanificazione-auto-per-i-neonati-bari/#comment-17306>Проволока 2.4855</a>
<a href=http://www.lesplaisirs.co.uk/product/tarte-aux-baies-et-fruits-rouges/#comment-200591>Изделия из молибдена МЧ</a>
<a href=http://www.sperkyswarovski.sk/hello-world/#comment-104919>Пруток 2.4975</a>
<a href=http://kathymarks.com/friday-afternoon-video-role-web-developer?page=606#comment-131094>Порошок вольфрамовый А04</a>
<a href=https://redatoronline.net/blog/fechamento-de-vendas-5-tecnicas/?waitingforapproval=14443#comment-14443>Полоса ХН35ВТЮ - ГОСТ 5632-72</a>
bffece3

отмостка дома

Davidtonia, 2022.04.04 18:46

<a href=http://otmostka-doma.ru/>отмостка дома</a>

1xbet промокод юлика

John202008Fah, 2022.04.04 18:24

уникальные промокоды 1xbet читачок

<a href=https://promokod-1xbet2022.ru/>бк 1xbet промокод</a>

bitcoin

Everettunets, 2022.04.04 18:12

<a href="https://t.me/s/bitcoin_for_earnings">is mining bitcoin legal</a>
<a href="http://luxgel.ru/products/harmony-pure-white-powder-105-gr.html#comment_1032564">bitcoin</a> e3c2e99

Test

GloriaTam, 2022.04.04 16:30

<a href="https://pizdyn.com/">порно мальчики
</a>

online casino mk

TravisOccup, 2022.04.04 15:48

online casino bonus ohne einzahlung
casino slots online free
online casino egt
online casino in canada
casino online net
casino online games
casino slot games online
novomatic online casino
live casino online
live online casino

<a href=http://m.ok.ru/dk?st.cmd=outLinkWarning&st.cln=off&st.typ=link&st.rtu=/dk?st.cmd=altGroupForum&st.tagId=1501918097&st.groupId=53428281802861&_prevCmd=altGroupForum&tkn=333&st.rfn=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://maps.google.tn/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://bostonpocketpc.com/ct.ashx?id=9f3bf646-d520-4763-a6d4-be7d3d251be2&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://maps.google.bs/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://juggshunter.com/cgi-bin/atx/out.cgi?id=358&trade=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.vanpraet.be/?URL=casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://google.com.ph/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://sjeffect.com/refer.php?ctype=S&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.bigboobsprivate.com/cgi/out.cgi?id=235&l=top_top&u=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://omedrec.com/index/gourl?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.engineeredair.com/?URL=casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://cfc-com-dot-yamm-track.appspot.com/Redirect?ukey=1QHkcD0qqbGef0RNmeAgAed0cEIRFvgNBeZegdtjVu00-0&key=YAMMID-15456862&link=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://images.google.hn/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://edu.glogster.com/library/proxy?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.penkethprimary.co.uk/warrington/primary/penketh/CookiePolicy.action?backto=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>

online casino mk

<a href=https://webreel.com/api/1/click?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.convertaz.com/redir.aspx?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://images.google.gy/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.thomasgericke.de/v4/interactive/blog/go.php?https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.predatormastersforums.com/adbanner/adclick.php?bannerid=92&zoneid=0&source=&dest=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.motobuy.com.tw/banner_direct.php?b_id=5&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.onephonenumber.com/cgi-bin/redirect.pl?https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.uktrademarkregistration.co.uk/JumpTo.aspx?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://cz4.clickzs.com/tx5.php?freex6&www.casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://sys.labaq.com/cli/go.php?s=lbac&p=1410jt&t=02&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.bobclubs.ca/cmshome/WebsiteAuditor/5638?url=www.casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://google.com.kh/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.sz-jlc-pcb.com/go/?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://maps.google.dm/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.skamata.ru/bitrix/redirect.php?goto=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>

bolivian online casino

casino-online-lv, 2022.04.04 15:41

<a href=https://casino-online-lv.site>online casino latvija</a>

Untrodden online casinos come out in the gambling application from time to time. At Casino Latvia we tender purely the most desirable of creative casinos - safer, licensed, lavish in their bonuses and overflowing of casino games. Don't taking to check our Online Casino Rankings schedule regularly, where we blue blood the newest and most trusted online casinos.
<a href=https://casino-online-lv.site>uk online casino</a>

OOTD Simple

Billywib, 2022.04.04 14:59

<a href=https://ootdsimple.com>Outfit hijab wanita</a>

Дубликаты гос номер на автоо

GregoryExess, 2022.04.04 14:54

<a href=https://guard-car.ru/>дубликат номера без флага</a>
<a href=https://guard-car.ru/>https://www.guard-car.ru/</a>
<a href=https://www.google.dk/url?q=https://guard-car.ru/>http://google.cz/url?q=https://guard-car.ru/</a>
http://www.guard-car.ru

lkjhgfder

DanialNaf, 2022.04.04 10:36

<a href=https://ostrov-nevest.ru/services/transport-dlya-svadby>загс владимир</a>

Test

NatalieKak, 2022.04.04 05:55

<a href="http://www.ebybab.com/">азиатское порно
</a>

best online casino indaxis

casino-online-ku, 2022.04.04 05:20

<a href=https://casino-online-ku.site>golden nugget online casino</a>
An online casino is a situation or special program that allows you to go along with practical games of chance - slot machines, roulette, poker, etc. In Ukraine, online casino sites are legalized. To on unified of the most reliable pastime portals, you should conclude from the square rating from our company.
<a href=https://casino-online-ku.site>pa online casino</a>

OOTD Simple

Billywib, 2022.04.04 05:16

<a href=https://ootdsimple.com>Fashion</a>

Lawyer

Michaeldashy, 2022.04.04 04:58

Получить услуги и консультацию юристов можно как офисах компании, так и онлайн. Задайте вопрос по телефону, мессенджер WhatsApp или оставьте заявку на обратный звонок через форму обратной связи. Для проведения консультации юрист соответствующей тематики свяжется с вами в ближайшее время <a href=http://advokat-gavrilova33.ru/>юрист по банкротству</a>