Ugrás a tartalomhoz Lépj a menübe
 


2021.02.08

11. A feudális hierarchia

A feudális társadalmi rend 1000 körül alakult ki. A Karoling Birodalom felbomlása után és a vándornépek támadásai nyomán Nyugat-Európa lakossága nem érezte biztonságban magát, ezért a nagybirtokosokhoz fordult oltalomért.

A vazallus (szolga, alárendelt személy) hűséget esküdött a seniornak (hűbérúr), amiért cserébe védelmet és feudumnak nevezett földbirtokot kapott:

- ez a homágium (hűségeskü) és beiktatás keretén belül valósult meg

- a feudum egy vagy több faluból, de akár egy egész fejedelemségből is állhatott

- mindenki vazallusa volt valakinek

- a király Isten vazallusa volt (pld. Én, Mátyás Isten kegyelméből Magyarország, Horvátország stb. királya)

- főeskü – ha egy vazallus több seniornak is hűséget esküdött, azt kellett elsősorban segítse, akinek a főesküt letette

- immunitás – egyes földbirtokok teljes védelmet kaptak mindenfajta beavatkozás alól

- a seniorok saját birtokukon monopóliumokat (kizárólagos jogokat) élveztek, pld. halászat, vadászat

- az uradalom központhában a vár állt – a földesúr lakhelye, hatalmának jelképe, amely veszély esetén menedéket nyújtott az uradalom parasztjainak is

          - magaslatokra, szigetekre, elárasztható területekre építették

- a főépület az öregtorony (donjon) volt, a vártulajdonos családjának lakhelye

- a donjont védőtornyokkal ellátott magas és vastag falak övezték

- ezeket a falakat vizesárok vette körbe, amelyen a felvonóhídon keresztül lehetett átkelni.

 

Hozzászólások

Hozzászólás megtekintése

Hozzászólások megtekintése

Проволока 1.3936

Kathrynjah, 2022.04.04 20:55

Приглашаем Ваше предприятие к взаимовыгодному сотрудничеству в сфере производства и поставки <a href=https://redmetsplav.ru/store/nikel1/zarubezhnye_materialy/germaniya/cat1.4869/provoloka_1.4869/>Проволока 1.3936</a>.
- Поставка тугоплавких и жаропрочных сплавов на основе (молибдена, вольфрама, тантала, ниобия, титана, циркония, висмута, ванадия, никеля, кобальта);
- Поставка катализаторов, и оксидов
- Поставка изделий производственно-технического назначения пруток, лист, проволока, сетка, тигли, квадрат, экран, нагреватель) штабик, фольга, контакты, втулка, опора, поддоны, затравкодержатели, формообразователи, диски, провод, обруч, электрод, детали,пластина, полоса, рифлёная пластина, лодочка, блины, бруски, чаши, диски, труба.
- Любые типоразмеры, изготовление по чертежам и спецификациям заказчика.
- Поставка изделий из сплавов:

<a href=https://www.armenisevehiclecare.com/sanificazione-auto-per-i-neonati-bari/#comment-17306>Проволока 2.4855</a>
<a href=http://www.lesplaisirs.co.uk/product/tarte-aux-baies-et-fruits-rouges/#comment-200591>Изделия из молибдена МЧ</a>
<a href=http://www.sperkyswarovski.sk/hello-world/#comment-104919>Пруток 2.4975</a>
<a href=http://kathymarks.com/friday-afternoon-video-role-web-developer?page=606#comment-131094>Порошок вольфрамовый А04</a>
<a href=https://redatoronline.net/blog/fechamento-de-vendas-5-tecnicas/?waitingforapproval=14443#comment-14443>Полоса ХН35ВТЮ - ГОСТ 5632-72</a>
bffece3

отмостка дома

Davidtonia, 2022.04.04 18:46

<a href=http://otmostka-doma.ru/>отмостка дома</a>

1xbet промокод юлика

John202008Fah, 2022.04.04 18:24

уникальные промокоды 1xbet читачок

<a href=https://promokod-1xbet2022.ru/>бк 1xbet промокод</a>

bitcoin

Everettunets, 2022.04.04 18:12

<a href="https://t.me/s/bitcoin_for_earnings">is mining bitcoin legal</a>
<a href="http://luxgel.ru/products/harmony-pure-white-powder-105-gr.html#comment_1032564">bitcoin</a> e3c2e99

Test

GloriaTam, 2022.04.04 16:30

<a href="https://pizdyn.com/">порно мальчики
</a>

online casino mk

TravisOccup, 2022.04.04 15:48

online casino bonus ohne einzahlung
casino slots online free
online casino egt
online casino in canada
casino online net
casino online games
casino slot games online
novomatic online casino
live casino online
live online casino

<a href=http://m.ok.ru/dk?st.cmd=outLinkWarning&st.cln=off&st.typ=link&st.rtu=/dk?st.cmd=altGroupForum&st.tagId=1501918097&st.groupId=53428281802861&_prevCmd=altGroupForum&tkn=333&st.rfn=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://maps.google.tn/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://bostonpocketpc.com/ct.ashx?id=9f3bf646-d520-4763-a6d4-be7d3d251be2&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://maps.google.bs/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://juggshunter.com/cgi-bin/atx/out.cgi?id=358&trade=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.vanpraet.be/?URL=casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://google.com.ph/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://sjeffect.com/refer.php?ctype=S&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.bigboobsprivate.com/cgi/out.cgi?id=235&l=top_top&u=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://omedrec.com/index/gourl?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.engineeredair.com/?URL=casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://cfc-com-dot-yamm-track.appspot.com/Redirect?ukey=1QHkcD0qqbGef0RNmeAgAed0cEIRFvgNBeZegdtjVu00-0&key=YAMMID-15456862&link=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://images.google.hn/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://edu.glogster.com/library/proxy?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.penkethprimary.co.uk/warrington/primary/penketh/CookiePolicy.action?backto=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>

online casino mk

<a href=https://webreel.com/api/1/click?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.convertaz.com/redir.aspx?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://images.google.gy/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.thomasgericke.de/v4/interactive/blog/go.php?https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.predatormastersforums.com/adbanner/adclick.php?bannerid=92&zoneid=0&source=&dest=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.motobuy.com.tw/banner_direct.php?b_id=5&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.onephonenumber.com/cgi-bin/redirect.pl?https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://www.uktrademarkregistration.co.uk/JumpTo.aspx?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://cz4.clickzs.com/tx5.php?freex6&www.casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://sys.labaq.com/cli/go.php?s=lbac&p=1410jt&t=02&url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.bobclubs.ca/cmshome/WebsiteAuditor/5638?url=www.casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://google.com.kh/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.sz-jlc-pcb.com/go/?url=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=http://maps.google.dm/url?q=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>
<a href=https://www.skamata.ru/bitrix/redirect.php?goto=https://casino-online-mk.site>online casino mk</a>

bolivian online casino

casino-online-lv, 2022.04.04 15:41

<a href=https://casino-online-lv.site>online casino latvija</a>

Untrodden online casinos come out in the gambling application from time to time. At Casino Latvia we tender purely the most desirable of creative casinos - safer, licensed, lavish in their bonuses and overflowing of casino games. Don't taking to check our Online Casino Rankings schedule regularly, where we blue blood the newest and most trusted online casinos.
<a href=https://casino-online-lv.site>uk online casino</a>

OOTD Simple

Billywib, 2022.04.04 14:59

<a href=https://ootdsimple.com>Outfit hijab wanita</a>

Дубликаты гос номер на автоо

GregoryExess, 2022.04.04 14:54

<a href=https://guard-car.ru/>дубликат номера без флага</a>
<a href=https://guard-car.ru/>https://www.guard-car.ru/</a>
<a href=https://www.google.dk/url?q=https://guard-car.ru/>http://google.cz/url?q=https://guard-car.ru/</a>
http://www.guard-car.ru

lkjhgfder

DanialNaf, 2022.04.04 10:36

<a href=https://ostrov-nevest.ru/services/transport-dlya-svadby>загс владимир</a>

Test

NatalieKak, 2022.04.04 05:55

<a href="http://www.ebybab.com/">азиатское порно
</a>

best online casino indaxis

casino-online-ku, 2022.04.04 05:20

<a href=https://casino-online-ku.site>golden nugget online casino</a>
An online casino is a situation or special program that allows you to go along with practical games of chance - slot machines, roulette, poker, etc. In Ukraine, online casino sites are legalized. To on unified of the most reliable pastime portals, you should conclude from the square rating from our company.
<a href=https://casino-online-ku.site>pa online casino</a>

OOTD Simple

Billywib, 2022.04.04 05:16

<a href=https://ootdsimple.com>Fashion</a>

Lawyer

Michaeldashy, 2022.04.04 04:58

Получить услуги и консультацию юристов можно как офисах компании, так и онлайн. Задайте вопрос по телефону, мессенджер WhatsApp или оставьте заявку на обратный звонок через форму обратной связи. Для проведения консультации юрист соответствующей тематики свяжется с вами в ближайшее время <a href=http://advokat-gavrilova33.ru/>юрист по банкротству</a>

Test

Amandaruiny, 2022.04.04 04:40

порно чужой
<a href="http://pornoxab.com">http://pornoxab.com</a>

merkur online casino echtgeld

casino-online-xh, 2022.04.04 03:52

<a href=https://casino-online-xh.site>online casino tipps</a>

Home to 1.3 billion people in upward of 50 nations, Africa is the inferior merchandise largest continent in the world. It spans 30 million four-sided kilometers, six measure zones and eight separate ambience zones.
<a href=https://casino-online-xh.site>online casino nightrush</a>

Test

Melindaanody, 2022.04.04 03:26

показать порно
<a href="http://www.ebyshka.com/">http://www.ebyshka.com/</a>

online casino no deposit bonus

casino-online-km, 2022.04.04 03:18

<a href=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online terpercaya</a>

According to sway data, the multitude of issued casino licenses more than doubled in 2018. The The pulpit of Restraint and Financial affairs told native media that as of January 1, 2018, there were 150 licensed casinos operating in Cambodia, with 88 of them located in coastal traveller Sihanoukville.

Groove machines are located on the territory of operating casinos. For some time after the interdict on gambling, citizens of the outback had the fact to fake slots, but in 2009 only foreigners are allowed in the casino.
<a href=https://casino-online-km.site>situs casino online terpercaya</a>

casino online

RobertoZow, 2022.04.04 03:06

agen casino online
casino online cambodia
casino online terpercaya pandora188
casino phú qu?c online
online casino singapore
background casino online
best online casino in estonia
online casino bolivia
r?ng h? casino online
daftar casino online

<a href=https://eu.aurora.network/redirect?url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://www.mygiftlist.com/giftURLredirect.asp?https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://chrison.net/ct.ashx?id=29315c32-6296-4467-966d-2c32a76bd9cb&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://myhottiewife.com/cgi-bin/arpro/out.cgi?id=jojo&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://humor.in.ua/redirect?url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://www.alex-games.com/LinkClick.aspx?link=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://market2hands.com/go.php?https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://www.havanautos.com/DTCSpot/public/banner_redirect.aspx?idca=343&ids=86839669&cp=167&idcli=0&ci=1&p=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://www.laselection.net/redirsec.php3?cat=actu&url=www.casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://vhpa.co.uk/go.php?url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://m.ok.ru/dk?st.cmd=outLinkWarning&st.cln=off&st.typ=link&st.rtu=/dk?st.cmd=altGroupForum&st.tagId=-601556877&st.groupId=52285394845867&_prevCmd=altGroupForum&tkn=5750&st.rfn=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://www.g1-keiba.com/linkrank/out.cgi?id=racejack&cg=0&url=casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://buyer-life.com/redirect/?url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://jfan.11510.net/out.cgi?id=00011&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://barrycrump.co.nz/ra.asp?url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>

casino online

<a href=http://wmb1.com/cgi-bin/ax.pl?https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://www.mytown.ie/log_outbound.php?business=112514&type=facebook&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://ota.caboodleai.net/en/advertisement/handler?returnUrl=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://images.google.co.za/url?q=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://www.ullafyr.com/gjestebok/go.php?url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://planetasp.ru/redirect.php?url=casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://tastytrixie.com/cgi-bin/toplist/out.cgi?id=jensex2&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://teenpornmov.com/go.php?s=55&u=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://xmyzl.com/?mod=count&id=676&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://images.google.ro/url?q=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://d3.pr-cy.ru/a/click/4f0cbbeb121d0b125b853cab3743b458/?to=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://www.wiredmail.co.nz/clients/hyperlink.aspx?ty=3&cid=j4bcE5eh33D4V8vDcZXaLg==&eid=f2cyWCMa1eFet5KztEzjFQ==&cusid=asEn1MzS4TBmTY3FIPdv3g==&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://google.co.nz/url?q=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=http://google.ne/url?q=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>
<a href=https://content.peoplevine.com/doNewsletterTrack.ashx?auto=N&company_no=396&wasClicked=Y&messageID=e0545605-29b0-4f24-832c-d5cc7c1a6fa9&newsletter_no=ZmxhcHwxNDEyNXxqYWNr&reference_type=customer&reference_no=YmFzZWJhbGx8MTA1ODc3Nnxzb255&url=https://casino-online-km.site>casino online</a>

Test

AlisonFaw, 2022.04.04 02:11

порно японки
<a href="http://www.nakonce.com/">http://www.nakonce.com/</a>